Birth of Steel; Punished For Being Poor
Enlightenment, application of theory in practice, improvement of sciences and natural philosophy result into the industrial revolution. New agricultural techniques, application of reason, spread of printing press and many other industrial improvements happened at this time; majority of them are made of Iron.
The well-educated part of the population, groups of inventors along with institutions supporting inventions such as the “Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce” provide grounds for inventions. At the same birth rate, no immigration but less death rate, population of children grows and they become the labour supply for the industry.
Banks provide money for the upper class to invest in farming. There is a new market for goods being produced in new colonial societies. New sciences of “Political Economy” and “Sociology” are introduced. Adam Smith talks about his ideology of the “Free market”. Turn- parks (highways), canals and rail bring huge changes to the transportation system.
During the medieval time steel was being produced unintentionally but late 17th century and 18th century is known as the appearance time of steel. Adding carbon to iron makes it stronger in tension forces and produces steel. In 1500s process of making iron was a craftsmanship and not an industry. England imports steel is imported from Germany at this time.
Benjamin Huntsman, a clockmaker, develops a process to produce steel for his clock machines. Subsequently, Sheffield employs the same steel production process continued for over 200 years. By the introduction of steel, machines, railways, bridges and many other objects get built out of slender steel members. Gustave Eiffel builds his brilliant bridges and his iconic tower out of this magic material.
During the 18th century the economy is booming as a result of the industrial revolution, ignited and fueled by birth of steel where in parallel, England faces the increasing destitution, disease, child slavery and the lack of life safety. “Workhouses” appear in 1720s to house the destitute. These workhouses are comprised three sections: the house for work, the poor house and the house of correction.
Jeremy Bentham designs his “Panopticon ”around this time.
Now is the time for appearance of reformers. Robert Owen, a social reformer, brings ideas of “Utopian Socialism”. He asks for education and labour reforms, rejects religion and desires the replacement of workhouses and factories by a “Cottage” system.
Fall of 2009